In a description of the National Science Foundation sponsored center for Smart process Manufacturing (http://www.rockwellautomation.com/resources/downloads/rockwellautomation/pdf/about-us/company-overview/TIMEMagazineSPMcoverstory.pdf) the authors suggest that market disruptions such as a “$3000 automobile or a $300 personal computer” might be outcomes. Plant integration, plant optimization and manufacturing knowledge are listed as the phases to get to this reality. What are the barriers to such an evolution in manufacturing ? How much integration of people, process and technology needs to happen to transform existing manufacturing ? Will leadership for this transformation come from small, agile companies who, when successful, will be integrated into larger ones or can the large companies lead such a transformation ? Finally, how global will this phenomenon need to be to transform supply chains ?