Automation in Manufacturing by Abhilasha Satpathy, DCMME Center Graduate Student Assistant

Three types of automation in production can be distinguished: (1) fixed automation, (2) programmable automation, and (3) flexible automation.

Fixed automation, also known as “hard automation,” refers to an automated production facility in which the sequence of processing operations is fixed by the equipment configuration. In effect, the programmed commands are contained in the machines in the form of cams, gears, wiring, and other hardware that is not easily changed over from one product style to another. This form of automation is characterized by high initial investment and high production rates. It is therefore suitable for products that are made in large volumes. Examples of fixed automation include machining transfer lines found in the automotive industry, automatic assembly machines, and certain chemical processes.

Programmable automation is a form of automation for producing products in batches. The products are made in batch quantities ranging from several dozen to several thousand units at a time. For each new batch, the production equipment must be reprogrammed and changed over to accommodate the new product style. This reprogramming and changeover take time to accomplish, and there is a period of nonproductive time followed by a production run for each new batch. Production rates in programmable automation are generally lower than in fixed automation, because the equipment is designed to facilitate product changeover rather than for product specialization. A numerical-control machine tool is a good example of programmable automation. The program is coded in computer memory for each different product style, and the machine tool is controlled by the computer program. Industrial robots are another example.

Flexible automation is an extension of programmable automation. The disadvantage with programmable automation is the time required to reprogram and change over the production equipment for each batch of new product. This is lost production time, which is expensive. In flexible automation, the variety of products is sufficiently limited so that the changeover of the equipment can be done very quickly and automatically. The reprogramming of the equipment in flexible automation is done off-line; that is, the programming is accomplished at a computer terminal without using the production equipment itself. Accordingly, there is no need to group identical products into batches; instead, a mixture of different products can be produced one right after another.

References:

(n.d.). Numerical control. Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/technology/automation/Numerical-control

Questions:

  1. What are the different forms of automation in manufacturing?
  2. How is flexible automation different from programmable automation?
  3. What is are the disadvantages of programmable automation?

 

 

3D PRINTING – Eliminating Wastes and Reducing Carbon Footprint by Abhilasha Satpathy, DCMME Center Graduate Student Assistant

The economic advantages of metal additive manufacturing as an alternative to traditional methods are clear, but the reduced environmental impact may be even more important to the future of industry.

Shipping: An Enormous Carbon Footprint

The flow of raw materials into a manufacturing facility and finished goods out of it require enormous energy inputs allocated to shipping. Given that traditional manufacturing has been heavily reliant on fossil fuels since the Industrial Revolution, this process exacts a major toll on the environment. Together, the transportation sector accounts for over 30 percent of all U.S. emissions. Industrial transportation related to shipping undoubtedly comprises a major segment of this total.Complex, disjointed supply chains result in an end-use product that requires inputs to be shipped from hundreds of suppliers. Further, the completed product goes through multiple layers of distribution before it arrives in its buyer’s hands. 3D printing can’t fix all these problems, but it does have the potential to dramatically cut the number of links in the chain by allowing local, on-demand manufacturing of a huge variety of components. Without a doubt, 3D printing will eliminate millions of component shipping journeys in the coming decade.

Traditional Processes Waste Vital Resources

The largest segment of the metal parts fabrication industry is “subtractive” processes like CNC milling, in which material is cut away from a block to produce a final part.This brings us back to the key word, “subtractive.” The problem with this type of manufacturing is that any of the original block of metal that is cut away is waste. That wasted material represents additional resources that must be extracted from the Earth via potentially harmful mining practices.

Even worse, the final outcome for the scrap material itself involves one of two things:

  1. Additional shipping and processing to take advantage of whatever economic value the cast-off still has
  2. A trip to the local landfill, where industrial overcrowding is already a significant issue

Metal 3D printing, when economically viable, provides a nearly perfect solution to this problem. Because it’s an additive process, whereby material is layered onto itself in an exact pattern, there is virtually no waste associated. Only the metal that actually comprises the final component is used. The unused material can be recycled.This could mean the difference between 95% waste with CNC machining and < 1% waste using metal AM.

Toxic Byproducts are Common in Metal Manufacturing

Certain types of metal manufacturing, most notably CNC machining and metal injection molding, require the use of toxic substances as part of their process. The oils and lubricants needed to ensure CNC machines run properly are often dangerous to the environment. The finishing process for these parts can also make use of fluids that can be damaging if handled incorrectly. These must be handled carefully and disposed of properly.Needless to say, “properly” isn’t a standard to which all manufacturers worldwide are held. Some percentage of the harmful agents used in both CNC machining and metal injection molding will make it into the air, water, or soil that supports the community around a plant. It’s hard to quantify this, but the environmental impact is real.Standards for proper disposal of hazardous chemicals associated with conventional metal manufacturing can vary dramatically by world region.

Metal AM eliminates this concern entirely. The process simply doesn’t generate any toxic byproducts, which guarantees that air and water quality won’t be directly harmed.Conventionally made components can leave a much bigger carbon footprint than 3D printed parts.A less obvious environmental cost of traditional manufacturing lies in the efficiency of end-use products. Recent successes in metal 3D printing have changed what’s possible for fuel efficiency in a variety of places. The technology has enabled huge design improvements that shave off weight without compromising strength.

Lessening the Carbon Footprint Through AM-Enabled Design

3D printing allows for the manufacture of parts with complex internal geometries, often in ways that are impossible for conventional techniques to match. The upshot is that design changes that combine multiple parts into a single component can often be completed without sacrificing functionality–or feasibility. This accomplishes the goal of lowering cost and lead times by simplifying the manufacturing process, but it also comes with significant environmental advantages.

Additive Manufacturing Optimizes Designs & Efficiency

As the world marches toward an increasingly tenuous climate future, the costs of a suboptimal part made through traditional manufacturing must be considered right alongside the more tangible impacts described above. There are countless heavy or less-than-aerodynamic components in applications across every sector that could be improved significantly with the design freedom afforded by metal AM. In aggregate, the emissions reductions that are now feasible through projects like GE’s Advanced Turboprop engine would represent major improvement for humanity’s overall carbon footprint. Metal 3D printing doesn’t yet offer all the answers, but in a growing percentage of manufacturing situations, it’s a step in the right direction for our planet.

References:

3DEO. (n.d.). Environmental Impact of Additive Manufacturing. Retrieved from https://news.3deo.co/environmental-impact-of-additive-manufacturing

Questions:

  1. How is 3D printing reducing the carbon footprint?
  2. How is 3D printing reducing wastage?
  3. How is 3D printing optimizing designs and increasing efficiency?

How Augmented Reality is disrupting supply chains. – Abhilasha Satpathy

With over one billion AR enabled smartphones and tablets already in use, companies don’t have to wait for low-cost augmented reality glasses to start reaping the benefits of augmented reality. Here are five ways that AR is transforming the supply chain into a nimble tool for global distribution:

1) Pick-and-Pack Services

Augmented reality is being used in warehouses to more efficiently locate products and pack them in outgoing boxes. One of the costliest parts of running a “pick and pack” service is training new workers to navigate a large warehouse and find the one product they are searching for. AR glasses can paint an imaginary line on the warehouse floor to simplify the searching and training. During the peak holiday season, temporary workers need to be on-boarded quickly. AR shortens the learning curve by providing new hires with constant feedback on their glasses about how they are doing and what can be improved. Field tests of AR pick-and-pack systems have reduced errors by as much as 40%.

2) Collaborative Robotics

Robots are the ultimate human augmentation. Workers sitting comfortably at their desks can wear AR glasses that let them see what a robot in the warehouse sees. AR glasses can now chart the paths of robots through warehouses and use their strength to lift and move heavy cargo. Dangerous or repetitive tasks, such as loading a truck, can be delegated to robots that operate with human guidance when it comes to how to best load the items to achieve the maximum load. Additionally, logistics robots are able to scan each product for damage, check its weight, and abide by any package shipping instructions. By connecting robots with managers, customers can be automatically alerted if any products that aren’t available before the truck even leaves the warehouse.

3) Maintenance

Fixing a problem before it happens is the most cost-effective form of maintenance. With many aircraft engines now transmitting usage data via Wi-Fi when they are on the ground, augmented reality is assisting maintenance crews in reducing engine downtime by comparing engine data with the past history of other similar aircraft with avionics systems. These algorithms then suggest maintenance before a problem is likely to occur. For planes that spend most of their ground time at distant locations, AR can also enable more experienced maintenance teams at the airline’s hub to see what local technicians are dealing with and provide timely live support.

4) Last Mile Delivery

In logistics, the last-mile of delivery to customers is the most expensive. AR can save money by cutting the time spent on last-mile delivery nearly in half. According to a DHL report, drivers spend 40% to 60% of their day searching inside their own truck for the correct boxes to deliver next. Instead of having to remember how their truck was loaded that morning, augmented reality is used to identify, tag, sequence, and locate every parcel. Combined with artificial intelligence, AR glasses can also navigate the driver to the proper door or building gate for delivery. These systems will record each and every delivery so that new drivers will benefit from past driver experiences. In the near future, every driver will be given a graphic overlay of each building they encounter.

5) Procurement

The distributed ledger capability of blockchain is being combined with augmented reality to bring transparency and traceability to procurement. The entire supply chain falls apart when customers can’t be assured of a product’s origin or authenticity. Each year, billions of dollars’ worth of counterfeit pharmaceuticals are distributed to patients, and tens of thousands are dying. Using AR to identify and track each shipment from manufacturer to end user is a way to help solve this deadly problem. Recording each transfer of ownership on a blockchain can also assist in tracing the origin of fish or the source of harvested crops.

Big data drives the decision making behind the world’s distribution of products throughout the supply chain. Augmented reality is now poised to exponentially increase the speed at which data can be analyzed and acted on. The insights augmented reality bring to the supply chain can be used to power the next generation of the supply chain, which will feature autonomous vehicles and delivery drones.

References:

“5 Ways Augmented Reality Is Disrupting the Supply Chain.” Fortune, fortune.com/2018/03/01/5-ways-augmented-reality-is-disrupting-the-supply-chain/.

Questions:

  1. How does augmented reality help in reducing costs in supply chain?
  2. How is blockchain is being combined with augmented reality to bring transparency and traceability to procurement?
  3. How does augmented reality help in last-mile delivery?

How 3D Printing Impacts Logistics and Supply Chains- by Abhilasha Satpathy, DCMME Center Graduate Student Assistant

In recent years, 3D printing has brought manufacturing capabilities to several remote, hard-to-access areas across the globe. DHL, for instance, tells us that the U.S. Navy 3D prints drones on-demand on board its oceangoing vessels. NASA, meanwhile, is working to develop a 3D printer for the International Space Station. Shell is also experimenting with this remote manufacturing method on offshore oil platforms.

Pay-for-use or nonprofit fabrication shops are becoming more popular as well, offering public access to 3D printing tools, and some websites have begun aggregating 3D printing designs, allowing customers to compare and select printing services that work for their specific needs.These initiatives are disrupting the traditional manufacturing supply chain in several ways. In researching warehouse stocking practices in Amsterdam, DiManEx found that approximately 80% of stored products were sold only twice yearly, which led to write-offs, scrapping, and wasted materials. With on-demand, on-site printing, companies can move away from having to store excess spare parts and can instead deliver parts quickly and efficiently, whenever they’re required. Mercedes-Benz Trucks, for instance, allows customers to 3D print more than 30 cargo truck spare parts.

As 3D printing becomes more and more prevalent, expect to see increased supplier consolidation as well. For instance, logistics providers may offer added value by being the ones to process, print, and deliver 3D parts quickly and cheaply. In this way, the typical months-long process of designing, sourcing, and producing component parts can be cut down drastically. In the future, 3D printing warehouses may also take on the responsibility of material sourcing in addition to 3D end-to-end design, production, and delivery. As an example, consider Amazon’s bet on this technology: The company has patented a truck fitted with 3D printers that would allow for sophisticated mobile manufacturing capabilities. Increased responsiveness is also likely, as 3D printers allow for smaller batch sizes, which can positively impact quality control and open the door for expedited product development.

Finally, this kind of technological innovation is likely to bring about advanced customization options, as users will be able to select various aspects of the design, material, shape, size, packaging, and so on. And in gaining the power to make and deliver their own 3D-printed products, customers will no longer be limited to what suppliers themselves design and produce.

 

References:

3D Printing Finds Its Place in the Supply Chain. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://news.thomasnet.com/featured/3d-printing-finds-its-place-in-the-supply-chain/

 

Questions:

  1. How is 3D printing bringing about advanced customization options into supply chains ?
  2. How is 3D printing reducing wastage in supply chains ?
  3. How is 3D printing improving the efficiencies of supply chains ?

 

 

 

How robots are changing Supply Chains by Abhilasha Satpathy, DCMME Center Graduate Student Assistant

One business area ripe for business process disruption enabled by robotics is supply chain execution, especially in order fulfillment processes in the warehouse. These processes typically involve a high degree of human involvement as well as a tremendous amount of movement throughout a facility. Now, it’s not as if robotics have been absent from these areas in the past; there are use case examples, but none at a large scale across supply execution. Those organizations that have introduced robots into their warehousing and fulfillment operations have delivered added value including productivity improvements, efficiency gains, the capability to better scale up/down with demand spikes and the ability to improve customer service levels.

The most familiar example of robotics in the fulfillment process is at Amazon. Thee-commerce giant acquired Kiva Systems (now known as Amazon Robotics) in 2012 for $775 million. Since then, Amazon has continuously expanded their use to upwards of 80,000 robots across 25 distribution centers. Through their deployment, Amazon has been able to accelerate delivery times and reduce fulfillment related costs. According to a note published by Deutsche Bank, the deployment of the robots equates to a roughly $22 million per year savings in facilities where they are in use, or an estimated 20% reduction to operating costs. If Deutsche Bank’s estimates are close, Amazon has proven that there is tremendous value to be gained through the use of robotics within the fulfillment center.

For some, a Kiva-type model will work quite well. These utilize fast-moving robots that shuttle entire racks of inventory from a segregated section of the fulfillment center to a picking station, where a picker selects the inventory needed to fill an order. After a pick, a robot returns the rack to back to the floor and moves on to the next pick. A rack-to-person model is best suited to high throughput facilities where speed is the most important element. The benefits include the ability to rapidly move product to picking locations and accelerate fulfillment cycles. However, the rack-to-person model also has its drawbacks. For example, it requires some facility modification to create a segregated area where the robots can safely operate and it requires a guidance mechanism to ensure that the robots operate within the appropriate spaces. These systems are not necessarily collaborative because humans aren’t allowed to work in the same aisles where the robots are operating.  One final drawback is that with these models, half of the movement is spent returning racks after a pick, essentially retaining 50% of the wasted movement in the process.

References:

Santagate, J., & Santagate, J. (2018, January 25). NextGen Supply Chain: The Robots are Here. Retrieved from https://www.scmr.com/article/nextgen_supply_chain_the_robots_are_here

Questions:

  1. How are robots disrupting supply chains?
  2. How are robots increasing operating efficiencies?
  3. How are robots helping in warehousing and fulfillment operations?

 

 

3D Printing Impact on Supply Chain

 

What is 3D printing

 

3D printing, also known as additive manufacturing – AM (the terms 3D printing and additive manufacturing have become interchangeable), is an additive technology used for making three dimensional solid objects up in layers from a digital file without the need for a mould or cutting tool. 3D printing uses a computer aided design (CAD) to translate the design into a three-dimensional object. The design is then sliced into several two dimensional plans, which instruct the 3D printer where to deposit the layers of material. Additive process, of depositing successive thin layers of material upon each other, producing a final three dimensional product

Impact of 3D printing on the Supply Chain

 

The impact of AM technologies on the global setup of supply chains can be very disruptive. The technology has the potential to eliminate the need for both high volume production facilities and low-level assembly workers, thereby drastically reducing supply chain cost. In terms of impact on inventory and logistics, we can print on demand. Meaning we don’t have to have the finished product stacked on shelves or stacked in warehouses anymore. Whenever we need a product, we just make it. And that collapses the supply chain down to its simplest parts, adding new efficiencies to the system. Those efficiencies run the entire supply chain, from the cost of distribution to assembly and carry, all the way to the component itself, all the while reducing scrap, maximising customisation and improving assembly cycle times.

Image result for Metal 3d printers in supply chain

Traditional supply chain vs AM model

 

The supply chain traditional model is founded on traditional constraints of the industry, efficiencies of mass production, the need for low cost, high volume assembly workers, and so on. But 3D printing bypasses those constraints. 3D printing finds its value in the printing of low volume, customer specific items, items that are capable of much greater complexity than is possible through traditional means. This at once eliminates the need for both high volume production facilities and low level assembly workers, thereby cutting out at least half of the supply chain in a single blow. From that point of view, it is no longer financially efficient to send products across the globe when manufacturing can be done almost anywhere at the same cost or lower. The raw materials today are digital files and the machines that make them are wired and connected, faster and more efficient than ever. And that demands a new model of supply chain . With support local sourcing, the 3D printing technology has the potential to tear established global supply chain structures apart and reassembles it as a new, local system. Furthermore, the technology creates a close relationship between design, manufacturing and marketing. The technology could transform the global supply chain to a globally connected, but totally local supply chain

Image result for Metal 3d printers in supply chain

 

Questions:

What is the future of 3d printing?

What are the challenges in using 3 D printing in supply chains?

 

Sources:

https://www.researchgate.net/…/320927657_The_Impact_of_3D_Printing_Technology

https://www.stratasysdirect.com/resources/infographics/3d-printing-impact-supply-chain

 

Disruptive Innovations and their applications in Supply Chain Management – by Abhilasha Satpathy, DCMME Center Graduate Student Assistant

Procurement and supply chain are at the cusp of a disruption with AI, IoT and blockchain technology. A digital transformation is ensuing with the promise of greater efficiency in business processes, operations, transparency and security.

Spend analysis

Spend analysis used in strategic sourcing, needs a shift from the traditional descriptive analytics model to more predictive and prescriptive analytics. Organizations can develop tools to enhance their spend analysis with public domain data — from social media, weather data, demographics, suppliers, competition and logistics to name a few — to help uncover insights that can save money and improve supply chain.

 

Supplier lifecycle management

The traditional supplier lifecycle management platform, when augmented by big data from the public domain, can offer meaningful information on suppliers and supply chain risks. An IoT solution can be employed to track the quality of the product at various stages of the supply chain thus improving the efficiency in the process and providing the metrics for supplier evaluation.

 

Strategic sourcing

Supplier bids are collected using online sourcing events, but a large part of the sourcing evaluation and award process is manual in nature. Using blockchain for through all steps of the process — proposals, quotes and bids — or auction, can offer greater efficiency and transparency.

 

Contract management

A blockchain platform and its smart contract framework coupled with IoT and AI, can help facilitate greater efficiency in compliance and obligation management. AI can help develop smart wizards to build contracts based on responses to specific questions and can further be enabled for pattern recognition to identify changes to standard clauses or introduction of non-standard clauses.

Order management

The traditional order management system is internal to any organization and facilitates the fulfillment process. Blockchain platform powered with AI and IoT can drive greater efficiency in orchestrating and streamlining purchase orders, shipment details, trade documents, goods receipts, quality assurance documents, returns and accounting.

Logistics

The logistics industry is an early adopter of AI, IoT and Blockchain, and is already reaping great business benefits. IoT in the logistics ecosystem can provide great insights on inventory management, shelf life, storage temperature, delivery routes, real-time tracking of freight and more

 

Reference:

https://www.ibm.com/blogs/blockchain/2018/04/digital-transformation-next-gen-procurement-and-supply-chain/

 

Questions:

  1. How are AI, IOT and blockchain transforming the logistics industry?
  2. How is blockchain helping in order management?
  3. How can AI help in contract management ?